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As Khorezm had expanded and grown prosperous, a new class of feudal landowners had emerged.They were the offspring of the ancient nobility, senior courtiers, or those who had been rewarded for loyal military service.As the road bends to the right, you continue straight ahead on a rough mud track with good views of the sites of Ayaz 1 is a fortified refuge that was probably built in the 4th century BC just after Khorezm had gained its independence from Persia.It was one of a chain of fortresses defending the main agricultural settlements of the right bank from possible attack by nomads.The neighbouring forts of Qırq Qız can be seen from its battlements.It is likely that the rulers of Khorezm attempted to maintain friendly relationships with the local tribes and to engage them in trade, thus creating a political buffer zone around the oasis.
The refuge is enclosed by two parallel walls, separated by about two metres. The inner and outer walls had a vaulted corridor running between some of which can still be seen - supporting an upper rampart.
Additional corridors run around the sides of three of the outer walls.
The enclosure is surrounded by the remains of many farmsteads and the boundaries of fields.
Another unusual feature is the 50 metre-long sloping man-made staircase that rises up to the entrance of the fort on the southern side.
At the foot of the ramp are the remains of a large square building, which is thought to have been a palace.
The building was fortified with low battlements and a single row of arrow slits running around the entire perimeter.